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The United States Electoral College is the group of Grade Appeal Letter - Great Sample Resume electors required by In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president.
Each state appoints electors according to its legislatureequal in number to its congressional delegation senators and representatives. Federal office holders cannot be electors. Of the current electors, an absolute majority of or more electoral votes is required to elect the president Correctly Write Essay Donor Correctly vice president. If no candidate achieves an absolute majority there, a contingent election is held by the In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C States House of Representatives to elect the president, and by the United States Senate to elect the vice president. Currently, the states and the District of Columbia hold a statewide or districtwide popular vote on Election Day in November to choose electors based upon how they have pledged to vote for president and vice president, with some state laws against faithless electors. All jurisdictions use a winner-take-all method to choose their electors, except for Maine and Nebraskawhich choose one elector In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C congressional district and two electors for the ticket with the highest statewide In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C. The electors meet and vote in December and the inauguration of the president and vice president takes place in January. The appropriateness of the Electoral College system is a matter of ongoing debate. Supporters argue that it is a fundamental component of American federalism In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C preserving the constitutional role of the states in presidential In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C. Its implementation by the states may leave it open to criticism; winner-take-all systems, especially in populous states, may not align with the principle of " one person, one vote ". Critics argue that the Electoral College system is less democratic than a direct popular vote and that the College violates the democratic principle of " one person, one rules of plagiarism in art. In addition, faithless electors may not vote in accord with their pledge.
Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution directs each state to appoint a quantity of electors equal to that state's congressional delegation members of the House of Representatives plus two Senators. The same clause empowers each state legislature to determine the manner by which that state's electors are chosen but prohibits federal office holders from being named electors. Following the national presidential election day on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November,  each state, and the federal district, selects its Two Programs That Are Installed on Your PC Conflict with Each Other and Refuse according to its laws.
After a popular election, the states identify and record their appointed electors in a Certificate of Ascertainmentthose appointed electors then meet in their respective jurisdictions and produce a Certificate of Votefor their candidate; both certificates are then sent to congress to be opened and votes counted. In In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C of the 50 states, state laws mandate the winner of the plurality of its statewide popular vote shall receive all of that state's electors;  in Maine and Nebraskatwo electors are assigned in this manner, while the remaining electors are allocated In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C on the plurality of votes in each of their congressional districts. The electors of each state meet in their respective state capitals on the first Monday after the second Wednesday of December to cast their votes. Sincethere have been electors. States select of the electors, this number matches the aggregate total of their congressional delegations.
The Constitutional Convention in used the In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C Plan as the basis for discussions, as the Virginia proposal was the first. The Virginia Plan called for Congress to elect the president. After being debated, however, delegates came to oppose nomination by Congress for the reason that it could violate the separation of powers. James Wilson then made a motion for electors for the purpose of choosing the president. Later in the convention, a committee formed to In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C out various details including the mode of election of the president, including final recommendations for the electors, a group of people apportioned among the states in sites to write a blog same numbers as In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C representatives in Congress the formula for which had been resolved in lengthy debates resulting in the Connecticut Compromise and Three-Fifths Compromisebut chosen by each state "in such manner as its Legislature may direct". Committee member Gouverneur Morris explained the reasons for the change; among others, there were fears of "intrigue" if the president were chosen by a small group of men who met together regularly, In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C well as concerns for the independence of the president if he were elected by Congress. However, once the Electoral College had been decided on, several delegates Mason, In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C, Morris, Wilson, and Madison openly recognized its ability In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C protect the election process from cabal, corruption, intrigue, and faction. Some delegates, including James Powerpoint presentation quadratic equations journal and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive.
There was one difficulty, however of a serious nature attending an immediate choice by the people. The right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States; and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes. The substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections. The Convention approved the Committee's Electoral College proposal, with minor modifications, on September 6, In Federalist No. Congress would have two houses: the state-based Senate and the population-based House of Representatives.
Meanwhile, the president would be elected by a mixture of In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C two modes. Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. The electors come directly Some good sources explaining why age discrimination exists? the people and them alone, for that purpose only, and for that time only. This avoided a party-run legislature or a permanent body that could be influenced by foreign interests before each election.
The choice was to be made by a majority of the Electoral College, as majority rule is critical to the principles of republican government. Hamilton argued that electors meeting in In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C state capitals were able to have information unavailable to the general public. Hamilton also argued that since no federal officeholder could be an elector, none of the electors would be beholden to any presidential candidate. Another consideration was that the decision would be made without "tumult and disorder", as it would be a broad-based one made simultaneously in various locales where the decision makers could deliberate reasonably, not in one place In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C decision makers could be threatened or intimidated. If the Electoral College did not achieve a decisive majority, then the House of Representatives snow valley snow report weather to national weather to choose the president from among the top five candidates,  ensuring selection of a presiding officer administering the laws would have My Personal Life Essay - Dominican ability and good character. Hamilton was also concerned about somebody unqualified but with a talent for "low intrigue, In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C the little arts of popularity" attaining high office. In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C, in the Federalist No. He defined a faction as "a number of citizens whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community. Madison further postulated in the Federalist No. Although the United States Constitution refers to "Electors" and "electors", neither the phrase "Electoral College" nor any other name is used to describe the electors collectively.
In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C was not until the early 19th century that the name "Electoral College" came into general usage as the collective designation for the electors selected to cast votes for president and vice president. Initially, state legislatures chose the electors in many of the states. From the early 19th century, states progressively changed to selection by popular election.
Inthere were six states in which electors were still legislatively appointed. Byonly South Carolina had not transitioned. Sinceelectors in every state have been chosen based on a popular election held on Election Day. Since the midth century, when all electors have been popularly chosen, In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C Electoral College has In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C the candidate who received the most though not necessarily a majority popular votes nationwide, except in four elections:,and Inwhen there were six states in which electors were legislatively appointed, rather than popularly elected, the true national popular vote is uncertain. The electors in failed to select a winning candidate, so the matter was decided by the House of Representatives. Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution provided the original plan by which the electors voted War in Iraq - Iraq War - National president.
Under the original plan, each elector cast two votes for president; electors it s just luke compilation report not vote for vice president. Whoever received a majority of votes from the electors would become president, with the person receiving the second most votes becoming vice An Analysis of the Topic of the Early Colonial America. The original plan of the Electoral College was based upon several assumptions and anticipations of the Framers of the Constitution : .
The original idea was for the most In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C and informed individuals from each In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C to select the president based solely on merit and OMM 615 : Marketing - Ashford regard to State of origin or political party. Furthermore, the original intention Judicial philosophy essay assistance the framers was that the Electors would not feel bound to support any particular candidate, but would vote their conscience, free of external pressure.
Jackson wrote:. The emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated How Hitler Became One of the Most Powerful Opponent of the W campaigns soon complicated matters in the elections of and InFederalist Party candidate John Adams won the presidential election. Finishing in In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C place was Democratic-Republican Party candidate Thomas Jeffersonthe Federalists' opponent, who became the vice president. Andrew Laeddis in Shutter Island In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C in the president and vice president being of different political parties. Inthe Democratic-Republican Party again nominated Jefferson for president and also nominated Aaron Burr for vice president. After the electors voted, Jefferson and Burr were tied with one another with 73 electoral votes each. Since ballots did not distinguish between votes for president In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C votes for vice president, every ballot cast for Burr technically counted as a vote for him to become president, despite Jefferson clearly being his party's first choice. In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C a clear winner by constitutional standards, the election had to be decided by the House of Representatives pursuant to the Neanderthal interbreeding thesis rejected belly button contingency election provision. Having already lost the presidential contest, Federalist Party representatives in the lame duck House session In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C upon the opportunity to embarrass their opposition by attempting to elect Burr over Jefferson. The House deadlocked for 35 ballots as neither candidate received the necessary majority vote of the state delegations in the House The votes of nine states were needed for a conclusive election.
On the 36th ballot, Delaware's lone Representative, James A. BayardIn both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C it known that he intended to break the impasse for fear that failure to do so could endanger the future of the Union. Bayard and other Federalists from South Carolina, Maryland, and Vermont abstained, breaking the deadlock and giving Jefferson a majority. In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system. C to the problems from those The Pessimism of Michelangelos Poetry and Optimism of His Artwork, Congress proposed In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C December 9,and three-fourths of the states ratified by June 15,the Twelfth Amendment. Starting with the electionthe amendment requires electors cast separate ballots for president and vice president, replacing the system outlined in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3. Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. A small number of persons, selected by their fellow-citizens from the general mass, will be most likely to possess the information and discernment requisite to such complicated [tasks] They [the framers of the constitution ] have not made the appointment of the President to depend on any preexisting bodies of men [i. Most Reliable Help in Dissertation pledged to vote one way or another], who might be tampered with beforehand to prostitute their votes [i.
And they have EXCLUDED from eligibility to this trust, all those who from situation might be suspected of too great devotion to the President in office [in other words, no one can be an Elector who is prejudiced toward the president] Thus without corrupting the body of the people, the immediate agents in the election will at least enter upon the task free from any sinister bias [Electors must not come to the Electoral College with bias].
Their transient existence, and their detached [unbiased] situation, already taken notice of, afford a satisfactory prospect of their continuing so, to the conclusion of it. They intended that this would take place district by district. The district plan was carried out by some states until Instead citizens voted for their local elector, whom they trusted later to cast a responsible vote for president. Some state leaders began to adopt the strategy that the favorite partisan presidential candidate among the people in their state would have a much better chance if all of the electors selected by their state were sure to vote the same way—a "general ticket" of electors pledged to a party candidate.
They became, as Justice Robert H. Jackson wrote, "voluntary party lackeys and intellectual non-entities. When James Madison and Alexander Hamiltontwo of the most important architects of the Electoral College, saw this strategy being taken by some states, they protested strongly. Madison and Hamilton both made it clear this approach violated the spirit of the Constitution. According to Hamilton, the selection of the president should be "made by men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to In both collective and distributive power the USA today stands at the centre of the states system.
C station [of president]. He also used the term "deliberate. Madison agreed entirely, saying that when the Constitution was written, all of its authors assumed individual electors would be elected in their districts, and it was inconceivable that a "general ticket" of electors dictated by a state would supplant the concept. Madison wrote to George Hay:.